Notícia

Quando as bandas marciais foram usadas pela última vez na guerra?

Quando as bandas marciais foram usadas pela última vez na guerra?

Na era dos mosquetes e das formações de tropas fechadas, os músicos marchavam junto com os soldados e tocavam música de marcha mesmo durante a batalha.

Quando foi a última vez que essas práticas foram usadas na batalha?

Na Guerra Civil dos EUA, eles certamente foram usados, e eu imagino que na 1ª Guerra Mundial eles não foram mais usados. É possível restringir ainda mais?

Eu diria que a guerra franco-prussiana não foi tecnologicamente muito diferente da guerra civil americana. Essa poderia ser a resposta?


Wikipedia:

Um exemplo posterior do uso de uma banda em combate ocorreu durante a Guerra do Vietnã, quando o Major-General do Exército dos EUA John Hay ordenou que a 1ª banda da Divisão de Infantaria marchasse por uma estrada mantida pelo Exército do Vietnã do Norte (NVA) enquanto tocava o "Coronel Bogey Marchar". As forças do NVA ficaram, supostamente, tão confusas com o desfile improvisado que se retiraram da área, permitindo que a infantaria americana tomasse a estrada sem oposição.

A Wikipedia obtém isso do site da 1ª Banda da Divisão de Infantaria, o que indica que isso aconteceu na notória "Estrada do Trovão" entre Saigon e Quan Loi, mas a descrição no site da banda não data o incidente. Mother Jones diz que isso aconteceu em março de 1969.

Há também uma lista de campanhas nas quais a banda serviu. A última campanha listada é a primeira Guerra do Golfo em 1991. No entanto, nenhuma das outras tem qualquer descrição de combate, então este incidente durante a Guerra do Vietnã foi provavelmente a última vez para eles .


Seu título diz 'bandas' e a pergunta usa 'músicos' no plural, então isso vai ser um pouco forçado, mas não posso deixar de aproveitar a oportunidade de pegar o 'Mad' Jack Churchill.

Wikipedia:

Noruega (1941)

Churchill era o segundo no comando do Comando nº 3 na Operação Tiro com Arco, um ataque à guarnição alemã em Vågsøy, Noruega, em 27 de dezembro de 1941. Quando as rampas caíram na primeira embarcação de desembarque, ele saltou de sua posição jogando "Março de os Cameron Men "em sua gaita de foles, antes de lançar uma granada e avançar para a batalha. Por suas ações em Dunquerque e Vågsøy, Churchill recebeu a Cruz e Ordem Militar.


JANEIRO

JANEIRO. Os Janízaros (de yeni & # xE7 eri, que significa "novo soldado" em turco) foram uma força permanente de elite da infantaria, formada pela primeira vez pelo sultão otomano Murad I por volta de 1380. Legalmente escravos (kul) do sultão, serviram ao longo dos séculos como arqueiros, besteiros e mosqueteiros. Os janízaros eram distintos do corpo principal do exército, que era composto de cavaleiros (sipahis) retirado da comitiva de nascidos livres de funcionários provinciais e notáveis. Os recrutas janízaros eram escolhidos entre grupos de meninos que eram admitidos ao serviço otomano em tributos periódicos a famílias camponesas cristãs, principalmente as dos Bálcãs. Os meninos foram trazidos para Istambul, convertidos ao islamismo, apesar das proibições islâmicas contra a conversão forçada de cristãos, e depois treinados para o serviço militar.


Samuel Adams e John Hancock estavam entre seus líderes proeminentes

O líder mais proeminente dos Filhos era Samuel Adams, filho de um rico cervejeiro que estava mais interessado na agitação radical do que no comércio. Adams escreveu sua tese de mestrado em Harvard sobre a legalidade de resistir ao domínio britânico. Embora George Washington tenha liderado o esforço de guerra contra os britânicos, & # x201C a verdade é que poderia não ter havido uma luta para começar se não fosse pelo trabalho de Sam Adams & # x201D escreve o historiador Les Standiford.

Outro membro importante foi John Hancock, que mais tarde foi imortalizado por sua assinatura extravagante na Declaração de Independência. James Otis, Paul Revere, Benedict Arnold e o Dr. Benjamin Rush, entre outros, também estiveram envolvidos no grupo.

Adams e Hancock, em particular, eram tão odiados e temidos pelos britânicos que, quando o general Thomas Gage ofereceu anistia aos bostonianos que pararam sua resistência em 1775, ele fez questão de excluir os dois homens, & # x201C cujas ofensas são de natureza demasiadamente flagrante & # x201D não deve ser punido severamente.

Não é difícil entender por que Gage foi tão duro contra eles. Depois de se formar no verão de 1765, o capítulo dos filhos de Boston marchou pelas ruas e queimou a efígie do oficial de selos Oliver & # x2019s, e então invadiu e saqueou sua casa. Quando o governador de Massachusetts e chefe de justiça Thomas Hutchinson, um leal, se recusou a renunciar à Lei do Selo, eles também saquearam e destruíram sua casa.

Os Sons não pararam por aí. Depois que o Parlamento aprovou as Leis de Townshend em 1767, que impunham taxas de importação sobre mercadorias como porcelana e vidro, Adams organizou um boicote para manter os produtos britânicos fora de Massachusetts. De acordo com o biógrafo de Adams, Dennis Fradin, os Sons reforçaram o boicote enviando meninos para quebrar as janelas e espalhar excrementos nas paredes das lojas locais que não obedeciam. Se isso não funcionasse, o proprietário corria o risco de ser sequestrado, coberto de alcatrão e penas, uma tortura dolorosa e humilhante que poderia deixar cicatrizes duradouras.

& # x201C A violência não era necessariamente aceita como uma característica regular da política, mas havia um entendimento de que poderia fazer parte da política como último recurso, & # x201D explica Benjamin L. Carp, historiador do Brooklyn College e autor do livro de 2010 Desafio dos patriotas: a festa do chá de Boston e a construção da América.

O protesto político dos Sons of Liberty, conhecido como Boston Tea Party, ocorreu em 16 de dezembro de 1773 em Boston, Massachusetts. & # XA0

Durante esse tempo, as visões principais de Sons & # x2019 evoluíram, afirma Carp. Eles rejeitaram a noção britânica de que haviam lutado na Guerra da França e dos Índios em nome dos colonos e que, como resultado, os americanos eram obrigados a pagar pela manutenção contínua dos soldados britânicos na América do Norte. Mas, além disso, eles também rejeitaram a autoridade do Parlamento britânico de fazer leis para os americanos. Acima de tudo, eles argumentaram que o governo britânico não poderia obrigar os americanos a pagar impostos.

Seus objetivos gerais mudaram de maneira semelhante ao longo do tempo. & # x201Como começar, a maioria dos Filhos da Liberdade só queria algo limitado & # x2014 para que o Parlamento revogasse a Lei do Selo, & # x201D Carp explica. & # x201CMas com o tempo, mais e mais Filhos da Liberdade se convenceram de que a independência era a resposta. & # x201D


12 de abril de 1831: Soldados em marcha causam o colapso da ponte suspensa!

Em 12 de abril de 1831, 74 soldados britânicos tiveram a maior surpresa de suas vidas quando a “nova ponte suspensa” sobre a qual marchavam desabou!

Cavando Mais Profundamente

A ponte em Broughton, perto de Manchester, Inglaterra, foi construída em 1826 no novo estilo de “suspensão”. Por ser uma das primeiras pontes suspensas da Europa e com apenas 5 anos, foi considerada o estado da arte.

Enquanto as tropas britânicas marchavam “no tempo” em 4 colunas através da ponte, seus passos sincronizados começaram uma ressonância rítmica criando uma espécie de salto agradável, fazendo com que alguns dos homens começassem a assobiar a tempo! Infelizmente, as tropas não perceberam que a ressonância saltitante criava cada vez mais movimento para cima e para baixo da ponte até que a estrutura começou a se quebrar e desabar, levando os soldados com ela!

Felizmente para essas tropas, o rio tinha apenas alguns metros de profundidade e, embora muitos homens tenham ficado feridos, alguns com ossos quebrados, ninguém se afogou ou morreu em decorrência dos ferimentos.

Obviamente, uma lição foi aprendida e depois os soldados britânicos marchariam em “passo de parada”, não sincronizados uns com os outros. Veteranos militares dos EUA reconhecerão isso como uma ordem de "Etapa da rota, março!" ao se aproximar de uma ponte e não retomar a marcha em cadência até que a ponte seja cruzada.

Cadastre-se na Albert Bridge, Londres

Em 2004, o programa de televisão, Caçadores de Mitos, examinou a ressonância da marcha causando a teoria do colapso da ponte com uma configuração elaborada, incluindo a construção de uma ponte para teste e usando 12 soldados-robô com “pés” pneumáticos para “caminhar” pela ponte em uníssono. Depois de um teste em que os passos eram muito fortes e outro em que os passos eram muito suaves, eles conseguiram na medida e determinou que o fenômeno é definitivamente verdadeiro. Infelizmente, este experimento foi editado a partir do episódio e só apareceu em Outtakes de Mythbusters.

Embora não seja causada por tropas marchando, a Ponte Tacoma Narrows em Washington desabou em 1940 por ressonância harmônica causada por ventos, basicamente o mesmo efeito. Talvez você tenha visto o famoso filme de “Galloping Gertie”Colapsando! Embora “Gertie” seja outra história a ser discutida com mais profundidade em uma data diferente, você deve saber A ponte Tacoma Narrows era a terceira ponte mais longa do mundo na época de seu colapso e durou menos de 4 meses!

Pergunta para alunos (e assinantes): Você já esteve em uma ponte quando ela desabou? Informe-nos na seção de comentários abaixo deste artigo.

Se você gostou deste artigo e gostaria de receber notificações de novos artigos, sinta-se à vontade para se inscrever em História e manchetes gostando de nós em Facebook e se tornar um de nossos patronos!

Agradecemos muito o seu leitor!

Evidência Histórica

Para obter mais informações sobre a história das pontes suspensas, consulte & # 8230

Sobre o autor

O Major Dan é um veterano aposentado do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais dos Estados Unidos. Ele serviu durante a Guerra Fria e viajou para muitos países ao redor do mundo. Antes de seu serviço militar, ele se formou na Cleveland State University, tendo se formado em sociologia. Após o serviço militar, ele trabalhou como policial e acabou ganhando o posto de capitão antes de se aposentar.


Pipes and Pipers

A associação das gaitas de foles como instrumentos de guerra é tão precoce, e provavelmente mais cedo, do que a primeira menção documentada do instrumento sendo tocado na Escócia. Os harpistas tocavam e cantavam de grandes vitórias na batalha, mas as harpas ou clarsachs tinham pouca chance de serem ouvidos por cima dos cantos e gritos dos clãs enquanto se preparavam para a batalha e entravam em batalha.

A antecipação antes do confronto, o incentivo para a batalha & ndash Prosnacha-cath, dos caledônios (o Cath-ghairm dos gaélicos), um nervosismo do que está por vir, pode ser despertado pelos bardos gritando seus versos através das fileiras do clann, mas o Mir-cath ou grito de guerra ou grito de batalha- Barritus, que descrito por Ammianus, & ldquoBegins em um leve zumbido, e sobe mais alto, como o bater das ondas & rdquo, teria abafado harpista e bardo. (LOGAN)

A Grande Gaita de Foles das Terras Altas, a Piob Mhor, é um instrumento com sons agudos e graciosos opostos, feito para ser tocado ao ar livre, em campo aberto e é adequado para inspirar homens (e mulheres) no campo de conflito e no rescaldo, o luto pelos caídos e a celebração do vencedor poderiam ser igualmente lindamente compostas e tocadas no Piobaireachd & ndash the Ceol Mor (Grande Música). O Piob Mor acabou se tornando a voz do bardo na comunidade do clã. (MANSON 115)

Depois de 1600, o piper tem um lugar escrito na documentação. Alexander MacNaughton, ao levantar duzentos arqueiros para a guerra contra os franceses, em 1627, escolheu dois flautistas para serem mencionados, & quotAllester Caddell & quot e & quotWilliam Steel & quot. (C.A.MALCOLM 24)

Além disso, & quotHarrie McGra, harper de Larg & quot e & quotAnother piper & quot MacNaughton, em uma carta ao conde de Morton no ano seguinte, descreveu as condições a bordo do navio, forçado a atracar em Falmouth devido ao mau tempo e para escapar de um navio de guerra francês:

& quotMy L & ndash A for newis from our selfis, our bagg pypperis e Marlit Plaidis (xadrez xadrez) serviram-nos de forma orientada na perseguição de um homem de guerra que nos siga. & quot (MANSON 117)

Poucos anos depois, outra carta, em 1641 de Lord Lothian, escrita em Newcastle, faz comparações de personagens entre as três disciplinas musicais, flauta, violino e bateria. “Não posso, do nosso arsenal, fornecer-lhe um violinista sóbrio, há um sujeito aqui que toca muito bem, mas é insuportável que se dê à bebida. Nem temos muitas dessas pessoas. Nosso arme tem poucos ou nenhum que não ceda armes. Somos mais tristes e graves do que os soldados comuns, só que estamos bem providos de pypers. Tenho um para cada companhia em meu regimento e acho que eles são tão bons quanto bateristas. & Quot (MANSON 117)

O tambor na batalha é anterior ao tubo, mas ambos tiveram um papel importante no campo de conflito. Enquanto o último incitava nos homens uma paixão pela luta, o primeiro fornecia a importante comunicação entre os líderes e seus homens no auge da batalha. Ordens foram passadas, manobras táticas, carregamento e disparo de armas & ndash, tudo ao sinal do baterista. Por volta do final do século 16, os bateristas dos regimentos militares passaram a ser controlados pelo Tambor Major, que por sua vez, estava sob as ordens do Comandante-em-Chefe. Quando o exército de Cromwell estava ocupando a Escócia no século 17, um Drum-Major General foi nomeado para recrutar os bateristas e supervisionar seu treinamento. Ele recebeu uma taxa de 6 xelins por recruta.

O cargo de Drum-Major General durou apenas até o início do século 18, mas o Drum-Major, como o líder da banda de tubos continua até hoje.

Um baterista habilidoso batendo nos tambores de madeira de casca profunda usando pesadas baquetas de madeira na "cabeça de baterista" de pele de carneiro poderia realizar batidas intrincadas que exigiam pulsos flexíveis e braços fortes. (MURRAY 5)

O ritual e o folclore também desempenharam um papel importante no exército em marcha. Um animal encontrado a caminho da luta geralmente era morto e o sangue borrifado sobre o clã ou as cores dos uniformes. Um destacamento de jacobitas sob o comando de Lord Lewis Gordon, que derrotou as tropas King & rsquos em Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, em 1745, matou uma porca e seus leitões no Mill of Keith Hall a caminho do confronto.

Antes de 1745, os clãs tinham posições distintas na linha de batalha e eram ferozmente possessivos com elas. Em Culloden, os MacDonalds foram colocados na ala esquerda e ndash sua postura usual era tradicionalmente na direita. Nenhum MacDonald, exceto Keppoch, desembainhou uma espada naquele dia. (LOGAN) Assim como bateristas e flautistas defenderam suas respectivas posições nas fileiras militares.

No século 17, um flautista era frequentemente listado como oficial. No entanto, por ordem do Quartel-General em 1769, um decreto proibiu a nomeação de flautistas. Embora os flautistas continuassem a ser alistados, muitas vezes a pedido de comandantes que desejavam ter um flautista pessoal, eles apareceram no Papel como & quotDrummers. . (C.A. MALCOLM)

Essa discriminação entre flautista e baterista às vezes não levava a rivalidade amigável, principalmente quando o lugar importante no clã ou regimento principal era entregue ao baterista e ao tambor-mor. Muitos regimentos contam e recontam a mesma história da altercação entre um oficial e seu flautista, o flautista perguntando "Um sujeito que bate em uma pele de carneiro com duas varas gangue na frente de mim, um músico?" O oficial, em meio a um dilema, resolveu o argumento defendendo que, como o baterista era reconhecido no Muster Role como um & quotDrummer & quot e o flautista não tinha um título oficial, o baterista teria seu lugar na frente.

A derrota dos jacobitas em Culloden em 16 de abril de 1746 encerrou o & quotBliadhna Thearlaich & quot & quot & quotCharlie & rsquos Year & quot e foi um ponto de viragem decisivo na história das terras altas, literalmente despojando os clãs de suas vestes e identidade. O Ato de Desarmamento de 1746 e a Emenda em 1748, conforme estabelecido pelo Rei George II, seguido do Rei George I em 1716, & quot Garantir mais efetivamente a paz das ditas terras altas & quot, proibiu o uso ou porte da & quotBroad Sword or Target (Targe ), Poignard, Whinger ou Durk, Side Pistol, Gun ou outra arma de guerra, & quot e, bem como estabelecer a lei para as condenações de tais infratores - seis meses no pedágio do infrator & rsquos cidade mais próxima. O transporte para as plantações "além dos mares" por sete anos foi defendido para uma segunda ofensa.

As mesmas sentenças também deveriam ser aplicadas se, com exceção das Forças de & quotOficiais e soldados em Sua Majestade & rsquos, usassem ou vestissem as roupas comumente chamadas de roupas das Terras Altas (isto é) a manta, Philebeg ou pequeno kilt , Trowse, Cintos de Ombro ou qualquer parte do que pertence peculiarmente ao Traje das Terras Altas, e que nenhum Tartan, ou Xadrez parcialmente colorido ou material deve ser usado para Casacos ou Casacos Superiores. & quot (REINO UNIDO, ESTATUTOS, 19 Geo. 2, cap.39, 1746, 587-602)

Em uma lei tão específica, é surpreendente que esses políticos não incluíssem a proibição da posse ou do toque de gaita de foles, dada sua potência musical para estimular o sangue do montanhês.

O duque de Cumberland, ou o & quotBloody Butcher Cumberland & quot como era conhecido no norte, observou com interesse intrigante os flautistas dos regimentos que apoiavam o rei (entre eles os Royals, os Fusiliers escoceses e Sempill & rsquos & ndash depois do dia 25) se aprontarem com suas tubulações antes de encontrar os jacobitas sob o comando de Charles Edward Stuart, em Culloden Moor, a leste de Inverness. Cumberland parou um pouco e perguntou a um ajudante o que os homens estavam fazendo com & quotTais feixes de gravetos? (referindo-se aos três drones, zarabatana e chanter) & quotEu posso conseguir melhores implementos de guerra! & quot & quotEles são gaitas & quot, foi a resposta & quot; quotthe Highlander & rsquos música na paz e na guerra. Sem esses, todos os outros instrumentos de nada valem, e os soldados das Terras Altas não precisam dar mais um passo, pois não serão úteis. & Quot (MANSON 114)

No rescaldo de Culloden, o espírito das terras altas foi curvado, mas não quebrado. Não houve proibição da gaita de foles, mas a frequência de tocar diminuiu, tornando mais difícil para os oficiais que desejavam alistar flautistas em regimentos montanhosos novos e estabelecidos. O sargento recrutador e seu grupo que vasculhavam a terra em 1794 em busca de homens saudáveis ​​dispostos a lutar contra Napoleão em seu solo francês natal estavam convocando uma boa quantidade de recrutas para o & quotKing & rsquos Shilling & quot. Tamanha era a escassez para atender à demanda de flautistas naquele mesmo ano, o capitão Duncan Campbell escreveu a um amigo & quotSe você pode se encontrar com um ou dois gaiteiros, caras bonitos e firmes, você pode ir até trinta guinéus para cada um. & Quot ( CA MALCOLM)

O leste e o oeste da Escócia pareciam aos oficiais dos regimentos ter um suprimento inumerável de homens jovens, em boa forma e fortes. Conflitos ultramarinos da Grã-Bretanha - a guerra da Sucessão Austríaca (1740-48), a Guerra dos Sete Anos (1756-63) lutou na Europa, América do Norte e Índia contra a França, Áustria, Rússia, Saxônia, Suécia e Espanha, a Guerra da Independência Americana (1776-1783) e no início do século 19, a Guerra Peninsular, exigiu o levantamento de soldados e regimentos foram formados por homens alistados em todas as cidades e países.

Os regimentos foram numerados junto com seus respectivos nomes. Por exemplo, o regimento de terras altas mais antigo, o Black Watch, formado por quatro companhias criadas em 1725 e duas em 1729 (mais tarde seria um regimento de dez companhias, cada uma com cem homens), estava servindo em Flandres quando fez o 43º regimento. Em 1751, o número do regimento foi alterado para o 42º, também mudando seu nome em 1758 para Royal Highland Foot. Renomeado novamente como o 42º regimento Black Watch. Um segundo Batalhão foi levantado em 1780 que, em 1786, tornou-se um regimento por direito próprio como 73º.

O 92º Gordon Highlanders foi criado pelo Duque de Gordon, principalmente com homens de sua propriedade do Condado de Inverness. Um bônus para os novos recrutas, além do Guinea Bounty, era um beijo da Duquesa de Gordon, uma mulher com reputação de bom humor e comportamento não convencional. O Ato de Desarmamento de 1746 isentou os & quotOficiais e soldados das Forças de Sua Majestade & rsquos & quot de não usar & quotRoupas da Highland & quot. Esses regimentos de kilted, entre eles o 92º e o 42º, o 71º, 72º, 74º, 75º, 78º, 79º, 91º, 92º e 93º, tinham ingleses em suas fileiras e é uma falsa crença que esses regimentos eram descendentes dos guerreiros sistema de clãs, embora muitos dos alistados viessem de clãs localizados para servir em seus regimentos de origem.

Em 1809, foi tomada a decisão de abolir o uso de kilts em uma seleção de regimentos - 72º, 73º, 74º, 75º e 91º. Uma guerra de palavras foi travada até 1881, quando o kilt foi restaurado. (MURRAY 44-45)

As companhias das terras altas que formavam o regimento, embora a serviço do King & rsquos, eram orgulhosas portadoras da tradição de uma rica herança. Naturalmente, se o comandante e outros oficiais desejassem, tudo o que podia ser feito era para garantir um flautista nas fileiras. Assim como o chefe do clã tinha seu flautista, o capitão do batalhão também tinha.

Na batalha, os flautistas provaram seu valor, não apenas como soldados, mas também para elevar o moral entre os soldados rasos. Histórias apócrifas de incidentes abundam na tradição regimental e nas colunas da imprensa. Fraser & rsquos, um dos regimentos no comando de James Wolfe em 1760, reagiu mal aos flautistas serem proibidos de tocar pela manhã em sua retirada de Quebec. O oficial encarregado, ao contrário da decisão do General & rsquos, contestou seu superior em sua decisão. "Então", disse o general, "deixe-os soprar como o diabo, se isso vai trazer os homens de volta."

O general Sir Eyre Coote comandando o 73º (MacLeod & rsquos Highlanders) na Índia em 1778 descreveu a gaita de foles como "Uma relíquia inútil de uma época bárbara!" o 73º liderou todos os ataques à tensão dos canos e venceu o dia, apesar de estar em grande desvantagem numérica. Sir Eyre Coote gritou para as fileiras e flautistas do 73º, "Muito bem, meus bravos camaradas, vocês terão um conjunto de flautas de prata para isso." Tão bom quanto sua palavra, cada flautista recebeu & pound50 e cada conjunto de flautas foi inscrito com o Agradecimentos gerais. (MANSON 119-120)

A bravura heróica de flautistas individuais jogando no calor da batalha foi documentada pelos regimentos já no século XVII. Na batalha de Haughs de Cromdale em 30 de abril de 1689, terminando a Guerra Civil Escocesa, um Piper Hamish, um jacobita, foi gravemente ferido, mas conseguiu subir no topo de uma grande pedra e continuou a tocar música após música, estimulando seus homens em sua batalha em Cromdale Hill contra as forças realistas até que ele desabou e morreu. Em memória, a pedra foi batizada de Clach A Phiobair & ndash & quotThe Piper & rsquos Stone & quot.

Em Waterloo em 1815, um Tubo Maior dos Gordon Highlanders, em face de uma chuva de fogo contínuo de mosquete, ficou em uma colina e brincou enquanto os Gordon & rsquos atacavam seu inimigo. Ao longo da história, os flautistas são lembrados por terem sido feridos mortalmente ou gravemente, enquanto continuam a tocar em face da adversidade. Essas façanhas e feitos muitas vezes incitaram os poetas a versos como memoriais de sua bravura. Um poema em homenagem a George Clark, um Flautista com o 71º na Vimiera, que foi ferido na perna por uma bala de mosquete foi escrito por Charles MacKay, um trecho do qual começa:

& quotUm flautista das Terras Altas atingiu seus pés,
Deite no chão com uma dor agonizante,
O grito foi levantado, os Highlanders recuam,
Eles correm, eles voam, eles não se reagrupam de novo!
O flautista ouviu e, erguendo-se em seu braço,
Apertou em seu coração os tubos que ele tanto amava,
E soprou uma explosão e um alarme estridente parecido com um canto fúnebre,
Isso mudou rapidamente para o swell jubiloso
De & lsquoTullochgorum & rsquo. & Quot

Mais uma vez, em Waterloo, Piper Kenneth MacKay do 79º Cameron Highlanders from Tongue in Sutherland deu um passo à frente de seu Batalhão para a frente das baionetas em Quatre Bras e tocou & quotCogadh Na Sith & quot (Guerra ou Paz), uma música comumente usada por todos os regimentos . MacKay enfrentou a cavalaria francesa de Bonaparte. Alice C. MacDonnell de Keppoch escreveu em 1895:

& quotEm Quatre Bras eles saltaram sobre o & rsquoer,
Gracioso, equilibrado, com pouco esforço,
Selvagem no alto, os canos ressoaram
De MacKay, que saiu sem
& lsquoCogadh na Sith! & rsquo os soldados responderam,
Com um grito alto e triunfante.
Notas selvagens tocando, flâmulas voando,
O desafio ao inimigo foi lançado. & Quot
(MANSON 131-132)

Ao longo da história, o flautista regimental se destacou tanto como soldado quanto como músico. Os regimentos se orgulham de destacar sua própria individualidade com melodias de flauta escolhidas, e cada Museu Regimental tem conjuntos de gaitas de foles que já pertenceram a flautistas de renome. Em todos os conflitos, desde a rivalidade de clãs até a guerra internacional, a música da flauta está muito presente. Durante e em memória de grandes e pequenos conflitos, in memoriam de homens e mulheres, luto ou em festa, o flautista pode compor uma melodia.

Antes que um Piper pode se tornar um Pipe-Major ou Sargento-Piper, como é o posto, suas capacidades não devem ser apenas de um jogador ilustre, mas também de compositor de Piobaireachd e Ceol Beag (Little Music), as marchas, strathspeys e bobinas . (C.A. MALCOLM)

Os títulos das músicas podem ser definidos para uma área geográfica específica. Por exemplo, & quotThe Battle Of Alma & quot composto de seu homônimo na Guerra da Criméia pelo Pipe-Major William Ross da Black Watch (42º), o anônimo & quotHeights Of the Alma & quot, e & quotSir Colin Campbell & rsquos Farewell To The Highland Brigade & quot. Da mesma forma, & quotThe Siege Of Delhi & quot e & quotJessie Brown Of Lucknow & quot do Indian Mutiny de 1857/58. A Guerra Ashanti de 1873 inspirou outra composição da Black Watch de Pipe-Major John MacDonald, "The Black Watch March To Coomassie."

Não é incomum que as melodias mantenham seu formato, mas sejam renomeadas e, portanto, dependendo da data e / ou versão da música, podem ser apresentadas como a mesma melodia com um título diferente. Antes da eclosão da Grande Guerra em 1914, Piper John MacLellan havia composto uma marcha intitulada & quotThe Bens Of Jura & quot. Durante a Guerra da África do Sul, ele mudou o nome para & quotThe Highland Brigade & rsquos March To Heilbronn & quot, (MacLellan já havia se alistado na Brigada). Posteriormente, ao ser postado no Egito, foi novamente renomeado, desta vez, & quotThe Burning Sands Of Egypt & quot. Logo após a eclosão da Grande Guerra, palavras foram adicionadas por um ministro escocês e, em sua forma poética recém-adotada, apareceu como, & quotThe Road To The Isles & quot, que embora criticado por ser impregnado de sentimentalismo, tornou-se um dos favoritos nas salas de música . (MURRAY 287-289)

Nos quartéis, o flautista ainda tem um papel importante na comunicação de informações. Os & quotDuty Tunes & quot variam de regimento para regimento, mas todos têm uma ocasião para servir. Reveille - & quotJohnny Cope & quot ou & quotBrose And Butter & quot, ou & quotBannocks O & rsquo Barley & quot. Os Gordon Highlanders tocam, & quotThe Greenwoodside & quot & quot & quot & quot; ndash um ar difícil e animado em uma manhã gelada para os dedos do flautista & rsquos. First Breakfast Pipes, Sick Parade, Second Breakfast, Call Quarter, Call Commanding Officer & rsquos Orders (The Burn & rsquos song, & quotA Man & rsquos A Man For A & rsquo That & quot é tocada pelos Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders e os Scots Guards, para citar apenas dois regimentos). Call - & quotJenny & rsquos Bawbee & quot, ao som da canção infantil, & quotPolly Put The Kettle On & quot é a melodia adotada por alguns regimentos, incluindo o King & rsquos Own Scottish Borderers e os Royal Scots. Última postagem - os gaiteiros do Royal Scots e do King & rsquos Own Scottish Borderers tocam & quotLochaber No More & quot, assim como os Highland Fusiliers.

Uma nota adequada para terminar é a melodia final do dia do soldado, Lights Out, para a qual o flautista geralmente toca a canção de ninar gaélica, & quotCadail, Mo Ghaoil ​​& quot & quot & ndash & quotSleep, Darling, Sleep & quot. Em palavras, os soldados o conhecem como

& quotSodger, deite-se na sua palha de picles,
Não é muito amplo e não é muito forte
Mas, sodger, é melhor do que nada em um & rsquo,
Sae sleep, sodger, sleep. & Rdquo

Leitura adicional:

Logan. William, & quotThe Scottish Gael Or Celtic Manners & quot. Vol. II 1876

Manson. William. L. & quotThe Highland Bagpipe, Its History, Literature, and Music & quot. Publicação de EP. Reimpressão 1977. Publicado pela primeira vez em 1901.

Malcolm. CA MA. PhD. & quotThe Piper In Peace And War & quot. Reimpressão 1993. Publicado pela primeira vez em 1927.

Murray. David. & quotMusic Of The Scottish Regiments & quot. Publicado pela Pentland Press. 1994.

Canhão. Roderick FSA (Scot). & quotThe Highland Bagpipe And Its Music & quot. 1988.

Purser. João. & quotScotland & rsquos Music & quot. Publicado pela Mainstream, Edimburgo. 1992.

Donaldson. William. & quotThe Highland Pipe And Scottish Society 1750-1950 & quot. Publicado pela Tuckwell Press. 2000.

Smith. Robert. & quotBuchan, Land Of Plenty & quot. 1996.

MacDonald. Joseph. & quotUma teoria completa da gaita de foles das montanhas escocesas & quot. Compilado em 1760/1763. Publicado pela primeira vez em 1803.
Uma coleção de melodias de Piobaireachd ou Pipe como ensinadas verbalmente pelos Pipers McCrummen na Ilha de Skye para seus aprendizes. Retirado de John McCrummen, Piper para o velho senhor de MacLeod e seu neto, o falecido MacLeod de MacLeod. Publicado em Edimburgo em 1828.

Gibson. João. G. & quotTraditional Gaelic Bagpiping, 1745-1945 & quot. Publicação NMS, Edimburgo. 1998.

Collinson. Francis. & quotThe Bagpipe & ndash The history Of A Musical Instrument & quot. 1975.

Piper George Findlater VC 1872 - 1942 Greg D. Allen

Quase todas as regiões da Escócia podem se orgulhar de um herói flautista e Aberdeenshire não é exceção.

Allen George Findlater nasceu em Forgue, perto de Turriff em Aberdeenshire, em 1872. Alistou-se no Gordon Highlanders em 1888 e logo depois foi destacado para o 2º Batalhão com o qual serviu em Belfast e Ceilão. Enquanto servia no Ceilão em 1891, Findlater foi transferido para o 1º Batalhão Gordon Highlanders. Quatro anos depois, em 1895, ele acompanhou o Batalhão na expedição para substituir Chitral e, em dezembro de 1896, foi nomeado Piper.

Em 1897, o 1º Batalhão fez parte da Expedição Tirah ao noroeste da Índia para proteger as rotas comerciais e suprimir as tribos hostis locais. A Força Expedicionária de Tirah somava nada menos que 32.882 oficiais e homens, com um apoio suplementar de 19.558 cozinheiros, oficiais médicos, funcionários do hospital e vários profissionais especializados. Blacksmiths and vets were also in attendance to oversee the welfare and treatment of the 8,000 horses, 1440 riding ponies, 18,384 mules &ndash not including camels, baggage ponies, wagons and carts.

A point of strategic importance for the Force to surmount was the ridge or "Heights Of Dargai", a rocky plateau with eroded natural ramparts occupied by the 8,000 strong Afridis tribe. On the 20th October 1897, assaults by the 1st Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment, the 2nd Battalion Derbyshire Regiment, and the 2nd Battalion Ghurkhas, with the Sikh Infantry, failed to gain any ground on Dargai. Early in the afternoon Colonel Mathias addressed the 1st Battalion Gordon Highlanders saying, "The hill must be taken at all costs. the Gordon Highlanders will take it!"

The Battalion Pipers, Kidd, Milne, Fraser, Wills and Findlater led the charge with Colonel Mathias at the front. Piper Findlater was wounded in both ankles during the initial charge over 150 yards of open ground from a hail of bullets from the "Heights". Nevertheless he continued to play on the bagpipes, leaning against a boulder, encouraging the "cocky wee Gordons" up the steep mountainous slopes of Dargai.

To the sounds of the Pipers and strains of "Cock O&rsquo The North" and "The Haughs O&rsquo Cromdale" the Gordons had stormed the "Heights Of Dargai" in approximately forty minutes, a climb of some 1,000 feet. By 3.15pm the Gordon Highlanders had taken and secured Dargai, and thereafter assisted in taking the wounded of all the regiments down to the hospital tents.

Findlater and the other wounded were transported to Netley Hospital in Southampton. The local newspapers and national press praised the bravery of the Gordon Highlander in this decisive attack, and when detailed reports became known Findlater was singled out for his actions in spite of severe wounds.

On the 16th May 1898 Queen Victoria visited the hospital and presented the Victoria Cross to Findlater and also to Lance-Corporal Vickery of the Dorsetshire Regiment. Private Lawson of the Gordon Highlanders was also awarded the Victoria Cross for his gallantry on Dargai.

As a result of his wounds Piper Findlater was discharged from the army. He was content, after a brief period of public appearances throughout Scotland playing to huge audiences and giving recitals on the bagpipes, to settle in Forglen in Aberdeenshire to a life of farming. However, on the outbreak of the Great War in 1914 Findlater enlisted again in the Gordon Highlanders and served with the 9th Battalion, rising to the rank of Sergeant Piper. He was discharged in 1919 and returned to Forglen and to his farm. Between 1919 and 1939 Findlater served as Pipe Major of the Turriff Pipe Band.

Piper George Findlater, VC died at Forglen, Turriff, on the 4th of March 1942 at the age of 70 years. His Victoria Cross is displayed in the Gordon Highlanders Museum in Viewfield Road, Aberdeen.

DARGAI RIDGE, 20th October, 1897.
Inscribed to Piper Findlater

The Cock o&rsquo the North, the Cock o&rsquo the North!
The Hielan&rsquo pipes did skirl,
And the Gordon men, they didna "hen",
Tho&rsquo death at their ribs did dirl.
The Cock o&rsquo the North, the Cock o&rsquo the North!
Struck up, on Dargai steep
As furth wi&rsquo a roar, broke the kilted Core,
Where Death stood ready to reap.

The Cock o&rsquo the North, the Cock o&rsquo the North!
If ye hear the chanter shrill?
As the Gordons gay, faced Death that day,
Through the reek, on Dargai hill.
The Cock o&rsquo the North, the Cock o&rsquo the North!
Though winged in the fight still screamed,
For Findlater blew, where the bullet flew,
And Death in red riot gleamed.
The Cock o&rsquo the North, the Cock o&rsquo the North!
A bonnie red comb has he!
We&rsquore proud o&rsquo his kind &ndash we&rsquoll keep them in mind
For the look they gave Death in the e&rsquoe,
On the rocky ridge o&rsquo Dargai o.


An Introductory History of the Bugle From its Early Origins to the Present Day

Where to begin? How to approach an elusive subject such as the history of bugles?

The first thing is to find a definition of “bugle.” And as we explore the history of the bugle, it is necessary also to incorporate a history of its sister instrument the trumpet. In both cases we are dealing with a brass instrument without valves, and both are played in the same manner.

The basic difference between bugles and trumpets is found in the shape of the bell. The musical definition of a trumpet (natural trumpet) is that of a horn which has two thirds of its length in the form of a cylindrical tube – usually it is five sixths of the total length. A bugle has a conical shape through-out. We can therefore make the general assumption that a trumpet is cylindrically shaped with a cup-shaped mouthpiece, while a bugle is conical in nature with a funnel-shaped mouthpiece. The shape of the bell plus the shape of the mouthpiece produces a different quality of sound in each. The trumpet is known for its bright, strident, brash sound, while the bugle is known for its darker and mellower tone. Today, the term “bugle” can simply mean a brass instrument without valves or slides.

Another shared attribute of the bugle and the natural trumpet is the number of notes they can produce. Natural trumpets and bugles, unlike the modern three-valved instruments today, can only produce a limited number of notes found in the harmonic series of a single fundamental tone. All musical sounds that we hear contain overtones, or tones that resonate in fixed relationships above a fundamental frequency. In Western tradition, we credit Pythagoras with discovering the harmonic (or overtone) series however, other peoples such as the Egyptians, Chinese, and Babylonians knew of harmonics before he did. Pythagoras discovered that a monochord (single tone) vibrates not only at its fundamental frequency, but also in partial segments – halves, thirds, fourths, etc., to a theoretically infinite degree. The harmonic series are the notes (or partials) that are created when a fundamental note is struck. It is the presence of these overtones that creates tonal color, and that helps us to differentiate the sounds of a harpsichord and a piano, a trumpet and a trombone, or one voice and another. Humans do not perceive overtones much past the fifteenth partial, because as overtones become higher, they become increasingly difficult to hear.

The notes that are available in the harmonic series include the fundamental note plus 11 upper partials. The higher the overtones go, the closer in pitch the notes become. As an example, when “Great C” is played on the piano it generates the following overtones: C – c – g – c1 – e1 – g1 – b flat1 – c2 – d2 – e2 – f#2 – g2. The natural trumpet and bugle with the fundamental pitch of c use five notes of the series, i.e. c1 – g1 – c2 – e2 – g2. These are the 5 notes on which most bugle calls are written. A sixth note (c3) is found in trumpet music but is rarely found in bugle music. The fundamental note of any horn is determined by the length of its tubing trumpets are found in keys of C, D, Eb and F, and bugles are found in the key of G, Bb and C.

A natural trumpet or bugle, then, can theoretically play any and all of the tones that are at integer multiples of the lowest frequency with which its tube is capable of resonating. To play these tones on a brass instrument requires a method of vibrating the lips into the mouthpiece to raise or lower the pitch within the harmonic series. (On other instruments of the orchestral family sound is produced by the vibration of strings, reeds or animal skins.) Normally it is difficult to make a brass instrument resonate at its fundamental.

Starting from almost the same original idea (an animal horn), the bugle and trumpet evolved into instruments of different usage. From the bronze and silver horns, the trumpet made its way into the symphony orchestra of the 18th century. The major Classical composers (Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven) made use of its fanfare qualities, albeit with limited notes, in their symphonies and usually paired the trumpets with the notes of the tympani. The bugle first appears as a hunting horn with the distinctive coil we mostly associate with modern french horns. In the late 18th century the bugle then took on the form we know today. Both trumpet and bugle underwent many experiments in the quest to add chromatic pitches to their playable notes. Both added keys in the late 18th century, and later valves in the 19th century. The trumpet became the instrument we are familiar with in bands and orchestras today while the bugle with valves evolved into the modern cornets and flugelhorns.

The military has long blurred the distinction between the two and still does to this day. It is interesting to note that today when a brass player is assigned to “bugler duty” that person will show up with a modern Bb valved trumpet to sound bugle calls.

Early bugles and trumpets bear little resemblance to those of today. Trumpets can be traced to pre-Biblical times when they were used by Egyptians and Israelites. The earliest trumpets were straight instruments with no mouthpiece and no flaring bell. These trumpets were actually megaphones into which one spoke, sang, or roared. The effect was to distort the natural voice and produce a harsh sound in order to frighten evil spirits.

Ancient trumpets were used at religious ceremonies and associated with magical rites. Burials, circumcisions, and sunset rites (to ensure the sun would return) were a few of the early ceremonies in which the trumpet was used. It was a male-dominated practice and among certain tribes of the Amazon any woman who looked at a trumpet was killed. The tradition of playing at sunrise (Reveille), sunset (Retreat), and at burials (Taps) may have evolved from these ancient rituals. The Rams Horn (Shofar) is sounded on the occasion of the Jewish New Year in a rite that continues to this day. The Shofar, made from the horn of a ritually killed sheep or goat, is played in the same manner as it was in the time of King David, using the same rhythms as in ancient times. The instrumental range of the Shofar is usually limited to two notes about a fifth apart.

The instruments found in ancient Egyptian art are short straight instruments of wood, bronze or silver and are depicted accompanying marching soldiers. The oldest surviving examples of metal trumpets are the two instruments that were discovered in the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh, Tutankhamun.

King Tutankhamun reigned from about 1340-1331 B.C. which places his life during the Bronze Age. The discovery in the 20th century of these horns confirmed the existence of trumpets during the Egyptian period time as had been seen in many paintings and reliefs. The two instruments have short expanding bells. One is 58 cm. long of silver and the other 94.4 cm. long of sheet bronze, partly clad with gold. According to trumpeter and historian Don L. Smithers, the longer of the two is pitched in the key of Bb and the other is in the key of C.

The ancient Olympic Games in Greece included contests of trumpet playing in 396 B.C. These contests were judged not by musicality but by volume of sound. The instrument used by the Greek trumpeters was the Salpinx, a reported copy of which is preserved in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. This Salpinx measures 157 cm. and is made of thirteen cylindrical parts made of ivory with a bell made of bronze, as is the mouthpiece.

Drawing of a Greek musician playing a Salpinx

Among famous trumpeters who participated in the games was a trumpeter named Achias (also: Archias), who won three times and to whom a column of honor was erected for his achievement. Another contestant was Herodorus of Megas, whose playing was so loud that many in the audience were stunned by the concussion. He was a giant man, slept on a bearskin, and when playing two trumpets at one time forced the audience to move back due to the force of his immense sound.

A Medieval manuscript showing angels with trumpets

Passages can be found in the Bible and in early writings of troops being marched to martial blasts and of trumpets used in ceremonial rituals. As recorded in the Book of Numbers 10.1-10, Moses was told by God to “Make two silver trumpets of hammered work you shall make them and you shall use them for summoning the congregation, and for breaking camp.” The trumpets were also to be used to sound the alarm when the people went to war, in religious ceremonies, and at feasts. As a fanfare instrument the trumpet was used in celebration of Solomon’s temple with 120 priests sounding the horns, as recorded in II Chronicles 5.12-13.

The story is well known of how Joshua had seven priests with trumpets sound and blow the walls of Jericho down (Joshua 6.4). Gideon, in Judges 7.16, also used trumpets to save Israel from the Midianites, who, in one of their forays into Palestine, had murdered his brothers. Gideon gathered 300 men and gave each a trumpet. They crept to the Midianite camp in the dark, and on signal blew all the trumpets simultaneously. The terrified Midianites fled with Gideon behind them. He captured their two kings.

There is a story that this tactic was repeated centuries later during the American Civil War. A Union army colonel, James H. Wilson, allegedly used 250 buglers during the battle of Front Royal, Virginia on September 21, 1864. The Union buglers charged the Confederate lines all blowing at the same time. The Confederates broke and ran in full flight. This could be one of those Civil War myths. If anyone has more on this please contact me.

Signal musicians used as an integral part of a military organization appear first in the Roman Legion. These musicians, called aenatores, utilized a wide variety of trumpets, and signals were sounded on these instruments which the Romans inherited from the Etruscans. The Etruscans were superb metallurgists and smiths, and must have been skilled in the making of bronze or silver trumpets. A collection of forty-three signals were used in the Roman Army.

Instruments in the Roman Legion included trumpets such as the Tuba which was conical shaped and about 117 cm. long. It was a straight horn that had a slightly flaring bell with no bends.

Tuba Roman musician with a Cornu

Another was the Buccina, which was in the shape of a “J” and was more like an animal’s horn. The Cornu was a long curved instrument made of bronze, in the shape of a “G,” which was more of a modern french horn shape and was played with the bell placed over the shoulder. The Lituus was also shaped like the Buccina, in the shape of a “J.”

The first authentic instance of a command being given by trumpet call was at the Battle of Bouvines, where Philip Augustus of France defeated Otto IV of Germany in 1214, when the trumpets sounded the signal for the victorious French charge. According to Markman in his Soldires Accidence, the different signals or calls were as follows with their modern equivalents:
-“Butte Sella” – Boots and Saddles
-“Mounte Cavallo” – To Horse
-“A la Standard” – To The Standard or Color
-“Tuquet” – Forward
-“Carga, Carga” – Charge
-“Aquet” – Watch (Sounded at night as the Tattoo and in the morning as Reveille)
The earliest notated calls can be found in Janeqequin’s composition depicting the French victory at Marignana in 1515. The piece, La Bataille, contains trumpet and drum calls. By 1544, descriptions of the specific trumpet signals used to issue commands were prepared by the British army as it waged its French campaign. These trumpet signals were used for cavalry while drums were used for the infantry.

Cesare Bendinelli of Verona, Italy was a musician and the leader of a trumpet ensemble for the Duke of Bavaria. In 1614, Bendinelli published The Entire Art of Trumpet Playing. Included in the method are military trumpet calls. The military signals – field pieces, as the German trumpeters called them – were the chief repertoire of the field, or military, trumpeters. These signals were limited mostly to only three tones of the harmonic scale. The signals have syllables under them in order for the performer to know how they are to be tongued. Bendinelli suggested pronouncing certain syllables “dran,” “hardly touching the first note and passing to the other with a kind of accent. The ‘dran’ is quite useful in the toccatas and in the [military signal] stendardo, but it is hardly used [higher] than in the striano [register] when it is performed fast and precisely in the grosso and vulgano [parts] it sounds marvelous.”

Bendinelli lists the following military calls for the trumpet:
-“Bring up the Saddle”
-“To Horse”
-“Parade”
-“To the Standard”
-“Call to the Skirmish”
-“Pitch Tents”
-“To Retreat”
-“To Watch”


When were marching bands last used in warfare? - História

By Allyn Vannoy

The first recorded encounter between American forces and Koreans in the Central Pacific during World War II came at Tarawa Atoll in November 1943. After four days of bloody fighting the Japanese fortified islet of Betio was brought under American control. The only survivors of the garrison were 17 Japanese soldiers and 129 Korean laborers who had helped build Tarawa’s pillboxes, bunkers, and gun emplacements, though some of the Koreans may have actively participated in the fighting.

Little has been recorded of the support Korea provided to the defenders of the various island garrisons Japan had spread across the Pacific before and during the war, but how this Korean support came about was a tragedy in itself.

The Conquest of Korea

By 1941, Korea had been under Japanese rule for some 31 years, but the events leading to Japanese occupation began decades before. In 1873, there was considerable debate in Japan concerning whether or not to conquer Korea. One faction of the Japanese government insisted that Japan should confront Korea due to Korea’s refusal to recognize the legitimacy of Emperor Meiji as head of the Empire of Japan, as well as to respond to insulting treatment meted out to Japanese envoys attempting to establish trade and diplomatic relations.

Three years later, the Japanese imposed the Treaty of Ganghwa, which opened three Korean ports to Japanese trade and granted extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens. Japanese influence increased with the subsequent assassination of Korean Empress Myeongseong, also known as Queen Min, in 1895.

As a result of the struggle for control of northern China and Korea, a simmering rivalry between Russia and Japan eventually exploded into the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, which Japan won. Under the Treaty of Portsmouth, signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s “paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea.

Marching near the village of Chemulpo, Korea, these Japanese soldiers are advancing toward their Russian enemy during the Russo-Japanese War in September 1904.

Under Japanese pressure the reigning Korean ruler, Emperor Gojong, was forced to relinquish his imperial authority and appoint the crown prince as regent. Japanese officials used this to force the accession of the new emperor, Sunjong, though it was never agreed to by Gojong. Sunjong thus became the last ruler of the Joseon Dynasty, which had been founded in 1392.

Official Annexation of Korea

In May 1910, Japanese Minister of War Terauchi Masatake was given the mission of finalizing Japanese control over Korea after the previous treaties, the Japan-Korea Protocol of 1904 and the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1907, had formalized Korea as a protectorate of Japan and had established Japanese hegemony over Korean domestic politics. On August 22, 1910, Japan effectively annexed Korea with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty signed by Lee Wan-Yong, prime minister of Korea, and Masatake, who became the first Japanese governor general of Korea. The governor general answered directly to the Japanese prime minister. All of the subsequent governor generals were high-ranking Japanese military officers.

Upon Emperor Gojong’s death, anti-Japanese rallies took place across Korea, most notably involving the March 1st Movement of 1919. A declaration of independence was read in Seoul. An estimated two million people took part in these rallies. The Japanese responded by violently suppressing the protests. According to Korean records 46,948 were arrested, 7,509 killed, and 15,961 wounded, while the Japanese placed the figures at 8,437 arrested, 553 killed, and 1,409 wounded.

In theory, the Koreans, as subjects of the Japanese emperor, enjoyed the same status as the Japanese, but in fact the Japanese government treated the Koreans as a conquered people. Until 1921 they were not allowed to publish their own newspapers or to organize political or intellectual groups.

With the Japanese occupation of the peninsula, many former Korean soldiers and other volunteers left for Manchuria and Primorsky Krai in Russia. Koreans in Manchuria formed resistance groups known as the Dongnipgun (Liberation Army), crossing the Korean-Chinese border to carry out guerrilla attacks against Japanese forces. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1932 and subsequent pacification of Manchukuo—the Japanese eventually creating a puppet government in Manchuria—deprived many of these resistance groups of their base of operations. They were forced to either flee west to China or to join communist-backed forces in Russia.

Forced Assimilation into the Empire

After 1937, when Japan launched the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) against China, the colonial Japanese government decided on a policy of mobilizing the entire country for war. Not only was the economy reorganized onto a war footing, but the Koreans were to be assimilated into the Japanese Empire. The government began to enlist Korean youths in the Japanese Army as volunteers in 1938 and later as conscripts in 1943. Worship at Shinto shrines became mandatory, and attempts to preserve a Korean national identity were discouraged.

Japanese rule was harsh, particularly after Japanese militarists began their expansionist drive. Internal Korean resistance virtually ceased in the 1930s as police and the military gendarmes imposed strict surveillance and punishments against antigovernment suspects. Most Koreans opted to pay lip service to the colonial Japanese government while some actively collaborated.

On December 9, 1941, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, formed in opposition to Japanese rule under the presidency of Kim Gu, declared war on Japan and Nazi Germany. The provisional government brought together various Korean resistance groups such as the Korean Liberation Army, which was involved in combat on behalf of the Allies in China and parts of Southeast Asia. Tens of thousands of Koreans volunteered to be part of such groups as well as the National Revolutionary Army and the People’s Liberation Army. The communist-backed Korean Volunteer Army (KVA) was established in Yenan, China, outside of the provisional government’s control, from a core of 1,000 deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. The KVA eventually entered Manchuria, where it recruited from the ethnic Korean population and became the Korean People’s Army of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

These fierce guerrilla troops are among a number of Koreans who rebelled against Japanese rule in the early 20th century. This photo was taken in 1907, three years prior to the Japanese annexation that essentially made Korea a vassal of the powerful island nation.

Among the noted Koreans that collaborated with the Japanese were Togo Shigenori, a prominent ethnic Korean who served Imperial Japan as a minister of foreign affairs and as a minister of Greater East Asia during the war, and General Hong Sa-ik (Kou Shiyoku), who served in the Imperial Japanese Army.

Even prior to the annexation of Korea, Japanese merchants had begun settling in towns and cities in Korea seeking economic opportunities. By 1910, the number of Japanese in Korea reached over 170,000, creating the largest overseas Japanese community in the world at the time.

Drawing Upon Korea for Labor

From 1939, labor shortages in Japan resulting from the conscription of Japanese males led to official efforts to recruit Koreans to work in Japan, initially through civilian agents and later through coercion. As the labor shortage increased by 1942, Japanese authorities extended provisions of the National Mobilization Law to include the conscription of Korean workers for factories and mines on the Korean peninsula and in Manchukuo, and the involuntary relocation of workers to Japan.

Of some 5,400,000 Koreans conscripted by the Japanese for labor, about 670,000 were taken to Japan, including Karafuto Prefecture, present-day Sakhalin Island. Those who were brought to Japan were often forced to work in coal mines, in military plants and factories, and on military construction, often under appalling and dangerous conditions. An estimated 60,000 died between 1939 and 1945 from harsh treatment, inhumane working conditions, and Allied bombing. The total deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and Manchuria was estimated between 270,000 and 810,000.

Beginning in 1938, Koreans both enlisted and were conscripted into the Japanese military as the first “Korean Voluntary” unit. Among notable Korean personnel in the Imperial Army was Crown Prince Euimin, who attained the rank of lieutenant general. Some Koreans who were former Japanese Army personnel later gained administrative positions in the postwar South Korean government. These included Park Chung Hee, who became president of South Korea Chung Il-Kwon, prime minister from 1964 to 1970 and Paik Sun-Yup, South Korea’s youngest general, famous for his defense of the Pusan Perimeter during the Korean War. The first 10 chiefs of staff of the South Korea Army were graduates of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.

In 1938, the Japanese began accepting Korean volunteers into the army of Manchukuo, forming the Gando Special Force. This unit specialized in counterinsurgency operations against Communist guerrillas. The unit included such notables as General Paik Sun-Yup, who later served in the Korean War.

Japanese influence on the Korean peninsula and eventual complete domination had its origin centuries earlier and increased with the Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. In this photo, Japanese troops march toward the Korean capital of Seoul in 1905.

Japanese corporations operating under the direction of the Japanese military organized construction units to build military facilities. The Japanese Army and Navy also raised construction units composed of Koreans and led by Japanese officers to work on projects across the Central Pacific, building fortifications on island bases.

In 1944, Japan started the conscription of Koreans into the armed forces. All Korean males were drafted to either join the Imperial Japanese Army or work in military-related industry. Before 1944, approximately 18,000 Koreans were inducted into the Army. From 1944, about 200,000 Korean males were drafted into military service, the total number of Korean military personnel reaching 242,341, of which 22,182 died during the war.

In addition to a large portion of the male population being drafted into the military and construction units during the war, Korean women also became victims of the Japanese comfort women program, serving in Japanese military brothels. The estimated number of comfort women ranged from 10,000 to 200,000, which included Japanese women as well. There were reports that Japanese officials and local collaborators kidnapped or recruited poor rural women from Korea and other nations for sex slavery under the guise of offering them factory employment.

The Allies Encounter Korean Soldiers

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the history of Korea under the Japanese took a final and dramatic turn as the Korean people were brought to the end of a long period of darkness. However, this final stage would come at a terrible cost.

During the fighting in the Pacific, American soldiers and Marines reported that they frequently encountered Koreans within the ranks of Japanese units.

The U.S. advance across the Central Pacific began with the capture of Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. The Japanese were well aware of the Gilberts’ strategic location and had invested considerable time and effort in fortifying the islet of Betio. The garrison included the 7th Sasebo Special Naval Landing Force of 2,619 men, an elite Japanese marine-type unit. In order to bolster the island’s defenses 1,247 men of the 111th Pioneers (construction troops) along with 970 men of the Fourth Fleet’s construction battalion were brought to the island. Approximately 1,200 of the men in these two groups were Korean laborers.

The U.S. landing at Makin Atoll encountered a Japanese garrison of 798 troops along with a labor unit consisting of 276 men, “who had no combat training and were not assigned weapons or a battle station,” according to one report. It was believed that most, if not all, of the members of the labor unit were Korean. Shortly after landing the Americans captured about 35 Koreans, and when the operation was completed a total of 105 prisoners had been taken, all but one of whom were noncombatant laborers.

A Korean pressed into working as a slave laborer for the Japanese on the island of New Guinea receives medical treatment after his liberation. Thousands of Koreans were forced to construct installations and fortifications across the Pacific for their Japanese captors.

During 1943-1945, Korean POWs taken by American forces in operations in the Central Pacific were brought to Hawaii and held in a camp on the island of Oahu. The camp, located in Honouliuli Gulch a little over three miles west of Pearl Harbor, was opened in March 1943. It was later renamed the Alien Internment Camp and eventually POW Compound Number 6.

Following action in the Gilberts, American forces moved on to the Marshall Islands. The islands of Kwajalein and Roi-Namur were assaulted in January-February 1944, and both Japanese troops and Korean laborers were encountered.

The defense of Roi-Namur left only 51 survivors of an original garrison of 3,500. Though the Kwajalein garrison numbered approximately 8,000 men, less than half were considered combat effective. The actions resulted in 7,870 dead and 105 Japanese soldiers captured along with 125 Korean laborers. To the distress of many Koreans, those Korean laborers who died in the Marshalls were and still are enshrined as war hero guardian spirits of the Japanese nation in the Yasukuni Shrine in Japan.

Some 300 to 400 Korean laborers were brought to the Honouliuli camp after the capture of Saipan in the Marianas in the summer of 1944, all of them noncombatant laborers. A number of these Koreans had been wounded. It was believed that most of their wounds had been inflicted by Japanese troops through beating, sword and knife slashing, and other abuses. Some had also received bullet wounds from the fighting as the Americans took control of the island.

It is likely that Korean laborers from various other Pacific islands, such as Guam, Tinian, and Peleliu, were also brought to the Honouliuli camp as POWs. During September 1944, U.S. Marines landed at Peleliu. The island was occupied by approximately 11,000 soldiers of the Japanese 14th Infantry Division, along with Korean and Okinawan laborers. The extremely bloody fighting resulted in 1,794 American dead and 8,010 wounded. Only 202 Japanese survived.

The End of Japanese Occupation

Japan’s formal rule of Korea ended on September 2, 1945, with the nation’s surrender to the Allies. The Korean prisoners held in Hawaii were repatriated to Korea in December 1945, along with many other Koreans from throughout the former Japanese Empire. But the final ending was not happy for all of the Koreans.

After the war, 148 Koreans were convicted of war crimes 23 of them were sentenced to death. The convicted Koreans included many prison guards who were particularly notorious for their brutality. Justice Bert Röling, who represented the Netherlands at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, noted, “Many of the commanders and guards in POW camps were Koreans and it is said that they were sometimes far more cruel than the Japanese.”

Some prominent Koreans collaborated with their Japanese masters and even served in the Japanese armed forces during World War II. Crown Prince Eumin, younger brother of Emperor Sunjong, served in both the Japanese Army and Air Force and as a member of Japan’s Supreme War Council.

Korean guards were also sent to the jungles of Burma to oversee the construction of the Burma Railway. The highest ranking Korean to be prosecuted after the war was Lt. Gen. Hong Sa-Ik, who was in command of all Japanese prison camps in the Philippines.

The Koreans, as involuntary members of the Japanese Empire, had found themselves in that proverbial position between the rock and the hard place. Without the defeat of the Japanese Empire, Korean culture and the Korean people might have vanished from the world. Today, Korean independence day is celebrated on August 15, 1945, the date of the Japanese surrender ending World War II.


The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band

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Although many indigenous peoples, particularly those of Canada, have adopted the word nação in order to emphasize their sovereign political status, others continue to use the words tribo e banda. Are all these terms interchangeable, or do they have specific meanings? To some extent, the answer to both these questions is yes: the terms once had specific meanings (and still do in some contexts), but they are now used more or less interchangeably in common speech.

Ambos tribo e banda are old words. The ancient Romans called a cohesive ethnopolitical unit a tribus (Vejo tribe). Languages as different as Old Norse and Middle French used variants of banda to describe groups of people that were bound or bonded together several other meanings of the word, such as “a decorative stripe” and “a close-fitting piece of attire,” denote some of the ways in which such groups expressed their membership, as by collectively wearing garments displaying a colourful stripe or by wearing an armband.

In the Americas, Africa, Australia, and elsewhere, colonial administrators applied these terms to specific groups almost immediately upon contact. In the 19th century, early anthropologists began to use these and other terms, such as chiefdom e Estado, to convey a given culture’s population and sociopolitical organization. By definition, a band was a small, egalitarian, kin-based group of perhaps 10–50 people, while a tribe comprised a number of bands that were politically integrated (often through a council of elders or other leaders) and shared a language, religious beliefs, and other aspects of culture.

Early scholars discerned a relationship between economics and sociopolitical organization: hunting-and-gathering cultures and forager-farmers generally organized themselves into bands and tribes, while full-time agriculturists tended to organize themselves into chiefdoms or states. When used in this relatively narrow sense, banda e tribo are neutral descriptors, as are those for other forms of organization such as monarchy ou condado. However, many terms originating in the social sciences took on derogatory and racist undertones when co-opted by late 19th-century proponents of unilinear cultural evolution, eugenics, and other concepts that have since been discredited.

Historically, the designation of a group as either a tribe or a band was often rather haphazard, as the process usually depended upon colonial administrators who had a poor understanding of indigenous political practices and the fluid nature of traditional social structures. In this context, the Sioux peoples provide a useful example. Their name derives from the derogatory Ojibwa word Nadouessioux (“Adder” or “Snake” see also Sidebar: Native American Self-Names). Colonial administrators soon shortened Nadouessioux to Sioux and also made the incorrect assumption that this term referred to a unified people.

Instead, the (notional) Sioux tribe encompassed a diverse group of linguistic and political entities ironically, none of these ever used the ethnonym (self-name) Sioux. By the 19th century the speakers of Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota (dialects of a single language within the inappropriately named Siouan language family) were referred to as “bands” because (from the perspective of colonial administrators) they were clearly subdivisions of the larger “Sioux tribe.” From a scholarly perspective, however, Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota are the names of linguistic groups that are related to, but quite distinct from, sociopolitical units. Together, these three dialects were spoken by some 40 independent political groups, each of which an anthropologist would consider a tribe. However, those tribes, such as the Sisseton (Dakota), Sicangu (Lakota), and Yankton (Nakota), came to be called bands.

The Sisseton, Sicangu, Yankton, and other independent “bands” in turn comprised numbers of smaller entities that were also (correctly) called bands, each consisting of several households that lived and worked together. Band membership was at this smallest level very fluid and typically coalesced around the bonds of kinship and friendship. Flexibility of residence provided an excellent way to access social support and to cope with the vagaries of a foraging economy. For instance, a given household within the Dakota-speaking Sisseton might move from one (smallest-level) Sisseton band to another, depending on the imminent birth of a child, the availability of food, or other reasons of social support and resource availability that household might also join another Dakota-speaking tribe, such as the Santee, or friends or kin in a Nakota- or Dakota-speaking group for similar reasons.

The ethnogenesis of the Seminole provides an example of the creation of a new sociopolitical entity. Taking its name from the Creek word simanóle (meaning “separatist”), Seminole culture was created in the late 18th century by a diverse assortment of refugees: Native American individuals, some having escaped slavery and others fleeing the destruction caused by the American Revolution and other imperial conflicts Africans and African Americans, some free and others who had escaped enslavement Europeans and Euro-Americans who had fled indentured servitude, military service, or the chaos of the war-torn countryside and a number of individuals whose ethnic heritage included more than one of these groups. Despite many hardships, these people succeeded not only in establishing a common language and new communities in unfamiliar territory but also in holding that territory against Spain and the United States longer than any other Southeast Indian group (Vejo Seminole Wars).

Band e tribo continue to be integral parts of the legal vocabulary in the United States and Canada, where many Native American entities include one or the other term in their legal name. In Britannica, for want of a better solution, an entity’s name may stand alone or be combined with a term such as nação, tribo, pessoas, ou banda the Seminole, the Seminole nation, the Seminole tribe, e the Seminole people are all used more or less interchangeably, while the Seminole tribes refers to independent polities or legally recognized entities that share Seminole heritage, and Seminole bands indicates the household-based coresident groups of the prereservation era. References to specific political entities use the group’s legal name, as in the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma and the Seminole Tribe of Florida.

Where two or more traditional cultures were clearly related and cooperative yet maintained their political independence, aggregate groups are referred to as nations, tribes, or peoples, and subsidiary units may be denoted as bands: the Sioux nation, the Sioux tribes, or the Sioux peoples the Lakota, Nakota, and Dakota bands the Lakota tribes, peoples, or bands (meaning those tribes, peoples, or bands who spoke Lakota) and the Sicangu band of Lakota.


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Japan’s Last Stand

Meanwhile, a composite battalion of the Japanese 41st Infantry, reinforced with an artillery battery, set up a defense line on the heights below Kokoda. They had orders to hold their position as long as possible to cover the retreat of the 144th Infantry across the Kumusi River.

“The ensuing battle for the village was fierce—hand-to-hand—with heavy casualties on both sides. The bitter struggle was not decided until an Australian bayonet charge routed the enemy. The Aussies entered Kokoda Village on November 2. Mopping up operations followed, and continued for several weeks. General Horii drowned while attempting to cross the Kumusi.”

Thus the Japanese were defeated in their attempt to capture Port Moresby because they were distracted by the fighting on Guadalcanal. And because the Australians proved every bit as tough and skilled in the jungle and on the steep trails as their confident and hitherto victorious adversaries.


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